Medicine

Covid 19

WHO( World Health Organization)

Top 20 Killer Diseases in the World


It is essential and crucial to keep you informed about the top 20 deadly diseases in the world. Every

individual needs to read this blog keenly and meticulously about the leading killer diseases that have

caused a lot of suffering and grief to massive amount of individuals. It is erroneous for people to think

that the deadliest diseases in the world are the incurable illnesses like Cancer and HIV.

This article will reveal the whole truth that most of the incurable diseases do not even rank in the top 5

of the world deadliest diseases. According to analysis done by the medical experts, it shows that around

56.4 million people passed away in the previous years due to illnesses that progress slowly. Our bodies

are highly vulnerable, and can be in danger of getting sick without you even noticing.

Knowledge is power and ignorance has no defense. It is for this reason research has been done to keep

you powerful and informed with the right information. Read about these diseases with a lot of

attentiveness for your benefit. It’s true that prevention is better than cure.

1. Coronary Artery Disease, or Ischemic Heart Disease

Coronary artery disease is also known as coronary heart disease which has lead to millions of deaths

around the world. Coronary heart disease occurs in your body due to plaque buildup in your arteries.

The arteries of a human being are elastic and smooth. Surprisingly, these arteries get plaque built-up in

their inner walls which make them narrower and rigid.

This process of your arteries becoming rigid and narrower restricts the flow of blood to your heart

muscle which makes you suffer from breathing difficulties. The plaque build-up can be so severe that it

leads to a heart attack or unexpected cardiac death.

How Does Coronary Heart Disease Develop?

From a very young age, plaque can slowly start getting into your blood vessel walls. As you grow up and

become old, the plaque actively builds up. This raises a very high risk of getting a heart attack and the

issues of blood clots in your body. The plaque clings to the inner walls of the blood vessels making them

sticky.

Lipoproteins, calcium, and inflammatory cells travel in the bloodstream and unfortunately mix with the

plaque. More of the inflammatory cells get in and, along with cholesterol, make the plaque level

increase. This pushes the artery walls outward and makes them grow inward. This process results in the

vessels of your body becoming narrower.

A narrowed coronary artery may lead to the development of deficiencies in other blood vessels that

move around the blockage to get blood to the muscle of the heart. If you are under stress, these arteries

may not have the power to bring sufficient oxygen to the tissue of the heart. In some instances, when

plaque ruptures, a blood clot may block blood movement to the muscle of the heart. This is very

dangerous which causes a heart attack.

It is scientifically proven that if the blood vessels in the brain are blocked, generally from a blood clot, an

ischemic stroke occurs. Also, it is worth to note that if the blood vessel within the brain explodes, most

probably as a result of uncontrolled high blood pressure, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs. Research done by


medical experts shows that taking a low-dose of aspirin each day may impede the causes of stroke and

heart attacks to individuals who are 50 years old or above and are prone to get this heart disease.

What is Ischemia?

Medically, cardiac ischemia happens when plaque and fatty substances narrow the inner walls of an

artery to the extent that not enough oxygen can get into the bloodstream. This results in chest pain and

other symptoms.

When does Ischemia occur?

• Eating

• Exposure to cold

• Stress or excitement

• Exercise or other exertion

Coronary heart disease can reach a point where ischemia occurs even when you are resting at your

home. When this happens, it leads to a medical emergency commonly known as a heart attack. If this

happens to you, get to an emergency room or call a doctor. Ischemia can occur without warning to any

individual with heart disease. It is highly prevalent in persons with diabetes.

What are the Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease?

The most common symptom of coronary heart disease is chest pain or angina.

Angina can be defined as follows:

• Numbness

• Pressure

• Aching

• Burning

• Painful feeling

• Fullness

• Squeezing

Angina can be mistaken for heartburn or indigestion.

Common indicators of angina are felt in the chest, but may also be felt in:

• Jaw

• Shoulder

• Back

• Neck


• Arms


Symptoms of coronary heart disease are more complicated in women than in men. Women usually

suffer from fatigue, nausea, sweating, or limitation of breath which causes chest pain. The other

symptoms that result in coronary heart disease are highlighted below:

• Shortness of breath

• Sweating

• Nausea

• Dizziness or weakness

• Irregular heartbeats

• Palpitations

How is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?

• The doctor learns your medical history, symptoms, and risk factors.

• He or she does a physical exam to your body.

• Diagnostic tests are done which includes cardiac catheterization, echocardiogram,

electrocardiogram, exercise stress tests, and others.

All the above tests assist the doctor to know the intensity of coronary heart disease.

Preventions of Coronary Heart Disease

• Avoid smoking

• Eat food that does not contain a lot of salt or sugar

• Make a habit of doing physical exercises regularly

• If you have diabetes keep your blood sugar in control

According to research done by medical experts, coronary heart disease continues to be the leading killer

disease in the whole world. Government and Non-Governmental Organization should take the

responsibility of teaching people about the dangers of this disease. Millions of people have died due to

coronary heart disease. You as the individual should eat a balanced diet, do physical exercises every day,

and in case of any stress share with a professional counselor all your problems. Accumulated stress and

depression can lead to coronary heart disease.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary illness encompasses a family of diseases which include: emphysema, and chronic bronchitis due to the deficiency of alpha one antitrypsin. COPD generally occurs slowly resulting in a shortage of airflow in and out of the lungs. Lung disease can cause your body to produce a lot of red blood cells which makes your blood thicker and hard to pump. The diagnosis, causes, and symptoms are discussed below.

The patients who suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might develop an enlarged heart. The condition deteriorates the function of heart which causes a difficulty breathing and also swelling in the feet and legs. The remarkable thing with COPD is that it is treatable and its conditions can be managed.

Chronic Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is swelling and irritation of the walls in the bronchial tubes. This irritation brings excess quantity of mucus and coughing. The inflammation of the lungs makes it difficult to breathe normally. The tiny, hair-like structures are likely to be damaged by the irritation. The cilia are unable to clean mucus from the airways.

Bronchitis is usually termed as chronic when you experience a productive cough and difficulty in breathing that last for around three months or more consecutively.

Emphysema

Emphysema is defined as the breakdown or the destruction of the linings of the alveoli situated at the periphery of the bronchial tubes. The affected alveoli are limited to exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen between the blood and the lungs. The bronchioles lessen their performance and collapse when an individual exhales, and trap air in the lungs. The locked in air prevents fresh air and oxygen from getting into the lungs.

The Statistics of People Affected by Bronchitis and Emphysema

Bronchitis and emphysema generally affect 23 million individuals in the United States or 13% of the American population.

What Causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

The two key sources of COPD are smoking cigarettes and deficiency of alpha 1- antitrypsin. Occupational dusts, genetic causes, and air pollution can also be the contributing factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking cigarettes is profoundly dangerous because it causes the cilia to stop functioning normally. When the function of the cilia is altered, trapped particles and mucus are not cleaned from the airways. Due to this chronic coughing, and excess production of mucus develop, resulting in chronic bronchitis. When chronic bronchitis becomes severe, it leads to the destruction of small airways causing emphysema.

Deficiency of alpha- 1 antitrypsin is a genetic disorder can lead to emphysema. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a defensive enzyme that is produced in the liver, secreted into the bloodstream from the liver cells, and then supplied via the blood to the lungs to assist in fighting inflammation. When there is insufficient AAT in the lungs your body ceases to be protected from the breakdown of the tissue.



When the white blood cells get into the lungs with the conditions of inflammation due to dusty environments or smoking, they pass the enzymes into the lungs. This can result in a breakdown of the linings of the air sacs. When the alveoli are harmed air openings of the lung becomes blocked, carbon dioxide cannot be exhaled, and oxygen cannot be moved into the blood.

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

• Difficulty in breathing

• Trouble in breathing when walking or climbing up the stairs

• Coughing

• Tightness in the chest

• Wheezing

Prevention of COPD

The most common cause of COPD is the smoking of cigarettes. Smoking contributes 8 out of 10 COPD- related deaths according to research done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Preventions of COPD Include:

• Cease from smoking

• Stay in a well-ventilated house if there is a wood-burning stove or fireplace

• If there is air pollution out of the house, stay indoors

• Let your home be an environment free from smoking

• Have respiratory protective equipment if you work in a factory or industry that emit chemical fumes or dust

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treatment

COPD treatment aims to relieve signs, improve the overall quality of life, decrease exacerbations, and to slow the decline of lung function. It's highly crucial to cease smoking and to avoid exposure to irritants of the lung. Pulmonary rehabilitation can better the well-being of an individual which may include:

• Regular exercises to strengthen your muscles

• Having psychological counselling

• Chronic obstructive pulmonary education

• Strategies of breathing


The Role of COPD Drugs

• Bronchodilators are used for opening the airways

• The steroids are used for reducing airway inflammation

• Antibiotics for treating respiratory infections

• Vaccines are used for pneumococcal pneumonia and flu


Lower Respiratory Infections

Lower respiratory infections have been noted to cause a lot of deaths in recent years. They have brought tremendous suffering and worldwide burden compared to immunodeficiency virus infections like heart attacks, malaria, or cancer. Especially in the United States, lower respiratory infections have caused a dozen related diseases and a high rate of death.

The mortality rate has gone up due to the development of these respiratory infections for over five decades. The lower respiratory infection is due to the inflammatory response in the lung and virulence of the attacking organism. When low-virulence organisms are deposited in small numbers in the lungs, an active defense may be mounted by the hosts innate immune system guards like alveolar macrophages, mucociliary escalator and antimicrobial proteins.

Lower respiratory tract infections can affect your lungs, sinuses, or throat. The diseases that are connected with lower respiratory infections include the following:

Pneumonia

Bronchitis

Bronchiolitis

Whooping cough

Influenza

Pneumonia

Generally, pneumonia occurs due to lung infection. This infection affects air sacs located in the lungs but not in the tubes that carry air to the lungs. The parts infected in the lung are filled up with fluid, which is comprised of white blood cells.

Pneumonia attacks your body because of the germs such as fungi, viruses, or bacteria. These germs get into the lungs via the bloodstream. Mostly the lungs get infected by these germs through minute water droplets in the air that we inhale. The bacteria of pneumonia are passed to your body by another sick person via the action of sneezing or coughing out the droplets.

Pneumonia can get into anyone despite how healthy or fit you are. The germs affect an individual who has a weak immune system. The factors that can weaken immunity are smoking, HIV, and viral infections like the common cold.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an infection that affects a person in a short-term. This disease mainly affects individuals 30 to 50 years of age and about 1,000 persons annually. Bronchitis is a lower airway infection which affects infants and babies under the age of 2 years. It is the most common type of disease that attacks the babies under one year.

Bronchiolitis

This illness is due to an infection that affects minute airways known as bronchioles. The airways become swollen which makes the breathing of an individual difficult. Bronchiolitis mostly affects kids because small airways and noses are easily blocked compared to adults. The illness usually occurs in the first years of age commonly at 3-6 years of age. It mostly affects children born prematurely, a child who is not appropriately breastfed and babies who live in overcrowded conditions.

Whooping Cough

Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory infection of the tract system. In many individuals it is noted by a severe cough followed by a difficulty in breathing. Whooping cough illness affects children, young adults, and elderly people. Deaths that are associated with this kind of this disease are sporadic but most commonly happen to infants. Pregnant women and other persons who come into contact with infants need to be vaccinated against this illness.

Signs of Whooping Cough Disease

Symptoms and signs of whooping cough disease appear for around 7-10 days. Below are specific signs of whooping cough:

Having a running rose

Coughing

Watery and reddish eyes

Having a nasal congestion

Influenza

Influenza is a viral infectious disease that affects the respiratory system of a person. It can attack your lungs, throat, or nose. This disease can affect children, young adults or the elderly.

Symptoms of Influenza Disease

Having a fever

Pain in the muscles

Having a headache

Persistent, dry cough

Weakness and fatigue

Congestion of the nasal

Having a sore throat

Signs and Symptoms of Lower Respiratory Infections in general

Coughing

Sneezing

Having a running or a stuffy nose

Headaches

Sore-throat

Pain of the muscles

Wheezing, or breathlessness

Fever or high temperature

Generally feeling unwell

The things you need to do to overcome the Signs and Symptoms of LRI

Getting plenty of rest

Drinking a lot of water to loosen any mucus in your running nose

Gargling with warm water if you get a sore throat

Inhaling a bowl of hot water

Raising your head while sleeping to reduce the difficulty of breathing

Using painkillers to bring the fever down and easing the sore throat, muscle pain, or headaches.

Don’t do the following when you have Lower Respiratory Infections Symptoms

Avoid as much as possible children breathing steam because they can easily develop breathing problems.

Never give aspirin to children who are below 16 years

If you are a smoker cease smoking completely because they can make your conditions to worsen

Treatment of Lower Respiratory Infections

The use of aminopenicillins drugs for pregnant women.

Taking of fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin

Use of cephalosporins

Taking of macrolides drugs

Lower respiratory infections have caused many of deaths world-wide. It is the task of the governments and Non-Governmental Organizations to come up with scientific medications and findings to overcome this challenge. When your conditions persist, it is recommended to seek a doctor for consultation. The above related respiratory infections have caused millions of deaths to babies, young people and to the elderly. In case your child develops signs and symptoms of lower respiratory infection rush him or her to a nearby hospital. See a medical doctor if you experience the above symptoms for earlier treatment.

  

Stroke Disease

According to the analysis done by medical experts in the United States Stroke is the 2nd deadliest disease in the world. This disease occurs when the blood supply to your brain is reduced or interrupted causing a deprivation of nutrients and oxygen in your body. This is profoundly dangerous which causes cells of your brain to die within minutes.

The stroke disease is a medical emergency which needs to be treated with immediate effect. Early diagnosis of this illness can lessen the damage of the brain and other potential complications. When the stroke is not attended in promptness, it automatically leads to numerous complications and eventually death of an individual. The good news that I want to bring in this article is that stroke is treatable and can be prevented.

What are the Symptoms of Stroke Disease?

Our bodies are highly vulnerable to this illness. Watch out for the below symptoms and signs for your own good health. It is very crucial to pay attention when these symptoms and signs begin to occur in your body. The duration of the time they have been in your body affect your treatment tremendously.

Symptoms and Signs of Stroke

Having trouble in understanding and speaking: you may experience this confusion. You may have difficulty in speech or slurring your words.

Numbness of the face or paralysis of leg or arm: you may get sudden numbness, paralysis in your face, or weakness in your leg or arm. Amazingly this occurs to only one side of your body. When this happens to you, try to raise both arms above your head concurrently. If one of your arms start to fall down, it’s most likely you are suffering from a stroke. Additionally, one side of your mouth probably may tend to drop when you are smiling.

Difficulty in seeing in one or both eyes: unfortunately, you may have blackened or blurred vision in one or both eyes.

A headache: an unexpected severe headache accompanied by altered consciousness, dizziness, and vomiting may indicate that you are suffering from a stroke.

Difficulty in walking: you may be in a state of losing coordination, loss of balance, or experiencing sudden dizziness.

When is the Appropriate Time to See a Doctor?

If possible, seek immediate medical attention from a doctor if you experience the above symptoms and signs of a stroke. Even if they seem to disappear or fluctuate don’t hesitate to see a doctor. When you go to a doctor he or she will ask you to do the following:

Face: you will be asked by the doctor to smile. This is done to check whether one side of your face will drop when smiling.

Arms: you be asked by the physician to raise both of your arms. This is carried out to test if one of your arms is drifting downwardly or you are unable to rise it up.

Speech: you be asked to repeat simple phrases by the doctor. If you have difficulty in speech, you have a high probability of suffering from a stroke.

Ischemic Stroke

Around 80% of strokes are ischemic strokes according to the research done by medical scientists in the United States. Ischemic stroke results when the arteries of your brain become blocked or narrowed causing a highly reduced blood flow. The following are the most common types of strokes:

Thrombotic stroke: thrombotic stroke happens when a blood clot occurs in one of your arteries that distribute blood to your brain. A lump probably may be the result of deposits of fatty substances that form up in the arteries and result in lessened blood flow or other conditions of the artery.

Embolic stroke: this kind of stroke results when other debris or blood clot forms away from the brain particularly in the heart and then sweep it via the bloodstream to form narrower brain arteries. This kind of blood clot is known as an embolus.

Hemorrhagic stroke: this arises when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or leaks. This type of stroke can occur from numerous conditions that affect the blood vessels. These include:

a) Uncontrollable hypertension

b) Overtreatment with anticoagulants

c) Weak spots in the blood vessel walls.

Below are the types of hemorrhagic stroke:

Intracerebral hemorrhage: in this kind of stroke the blood vessels in the brain explodes and spills into the nearby brain tissue, harming brain cells. Hypertension, vascular malformations, trauma, blood thinning medications may trigger the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage: an artery near to the surface of your brain bursts and leaks into the space between the skull and the surface of your brain. The bleeding of subarachnoid hemorrhage is indicated by severe headache.

Risk Factors

A few different factors may accelerate the increased risk of stroke.

These include the following:

Lifestyle risk factors

Obesity

Lack of physical exercises

Excessive drinking of alcohol

Taking of illicit drugs like methamphetamines and cocaine

Medical risk factors

High blood pressure readings above 120/80 millimeters of mercury

Smoking cigarettes

A high rate of cholesterol in the body

Diabetes

Obstructive sleep apnea

Cardiovascular illness, which includes abnormal heart rhythm, heart failure, heart infection or heart defects

A family history of stroke or personal, transient ischemic attack or heart attack

Age: people over 55 years of age have a higher risk of suffering from stroke compared to younger people.

Race: African-Americans have a higher chance of getting a stroke than individuals of other races.

Hormones: hormone treatments that include estrogen or the use of birth control pills may cause a stroke.

What are some of the Complications of Stroke Disease?

The stroke disease can result in permanent or temporary disabilities, depending on the duration the brain lacks sufficient blood supply and the parts that have been affected.

Loss of muscle movement or paralysis: you may probably become paralyzed one part of your body or the act of losing control of specific muscles.

Trouble in swallowing or talking: a stroke may be so severe which may result in difficulty in speech.

Loss of memory or thinking difficulties: many people who suffer from stroke have a challenge in making reasonable judgments, difficulty in understanding and the challenge in perceiving certain concepts.

Emotional problems: people with stroke disease are highly reactive, and in most cases, they suffer from depression.

Pain: You may experience strange numbness or pain in the affected parts of your body.

Change in behavior: individuals suffering from stroke may become antisocial.



Preventions of Stroke Disease

Controlling hypertension: make sure you do physical exercises regularly, and also following a balanced diet.

Lowering the quantity of cholesterol and saturated fat in your diet

Cease smoking

Cultivate a habit of eating vegetables and fruits

Drink alcohol with moderation

Avoid taking illegal drugs


7 signs and symptoms of possible internal bleeding you should be aware of

200 Years of Medicine

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosistreatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciencesbiomedical researchgenetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapyexternal splints and tractionmedical devicesbiologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine 

Side Effects of Radiation Therapy

Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board, 12/2016

Radiation therapy treats many types of cancer effectively. But like other treatments, it often causes side effects. These are different for each person. They depend on the type of cancer, its location, the radiation therapy dose, and your general health.

https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/how-cancer-treated/radiation-therapy/side-effects-radiation-therapy

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The Nightingale Pledge, named in honour of Florence Nightingale, is a modified version of the Hippocratic OathLystra Gretter and a Committee for the Farrand Training School for Nurses in Detroit, Michigan, created the pledge in 1893. Gretter, inspired by the work of Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, credited the pledge to the work of her committee, but was herself considered "the moving spirit behind the idea" for the Pledge.[1][2]

The Nightingale Pledge is a statement of the ethics and principles of the nursing profession. It included a vow to "abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous" and to "zealously seek to nurse those who are ill wherever they may be and whenever they are in need." In a 1935 revision to the pledge, Gretter widened the role of the nurse by including an oath to become a "missioner of health" dedicated to the advancement of "human welfare"—an expansion of nurses' bedside focus to an approach that encompassed public health.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nightingale_Pledge


The Hippocratic oath 

The Hippocratic oath is a long-standing tradition in medicine. Named after the Greek physician Hippocrates, the written oath was intended to act as a guideline for those entering the medical profession. Over the centuries, the exact wording has been modified and adapted, but the essence of the oath has remained the same. Doctors should respect those who have passed down medical knowledge and in turn pass their knowledge to the next generation. They should also respect the patients they are treating and ensure that they treat them to the best of their ability.

http://broughttolife.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/techniques/hippocraticoath

Caribbean Travel Health Information

Some of the nastiest health bugs in the world fall under the category of "tropical diseases." Fortunately, the Caribbean is generally blessed with a healthy environment and clean water supplies, and few visitors experience serious health problems when traveling to the islands. So, visitors to the region generally are not required to undergo immunization.  Still, the Caribbean is not immune from the occasional outbreak of tropical diseases like malaria, and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does recommend that visitors to certain islands get up to date on their immunizations before they leave home.

For more info check Trip Savvy

https://www.tripsavvy.com/caribbean-travel-health-information-1488173

WHO

Disability and Health

Disability is an impairment that may be cognitivedevelopmentalintellectualmentalphysicalsensory, or some combination of these. It substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.

Disabled World - Disability News & Information


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Pledge-Card



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Cancer

Cancer Overview

Cancer, also called malignancy, is an abnormal growth of cells. There are more than 100 types of cancer, including breast cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and lymphoma. Symptoms vary depending on the type. Cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery.

Diabetes 


What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin. Insulin is a hormone. When your body turns the food you eat into energy (also called sugar or glucose), insulin is released to help transport this energy to the cells. Insulin acts as a “key.” Its chemical message tells the cell to open and receive glucose. If you produce little or no insulin, or are insulin resistant, too much sugar remains in your blood. Blood glucose levels are higher than normal for individuals with diabetes. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2.


For more info Check Out Da Vita

https://www.davita.com/kidney-disease/causes/diabetes/diabetes:-definition,-causes-and-symptoms/e/4991

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